MGD Working Group

Definition and Diagnosis

The word, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), was first used by Gutgesell in 1982, and since then it has been used in clinical settings to denote conditions with abnormalities in meibomian gland function. Actually, symptoms such as eye discomfort are caused by MGD in a considerable proportion of patients visiting ophthalmologists complaining of such symptoms, and MGD is considered to induce a reduction in the quality of life in many patients. Thus, MGD is a clinically important disease, but no great attention has been paid to MGD in the clinical practice of general ophthalmology for the following reasons:

(1) Its clinical manifestations are variable: some cases involve inflammation and commensal bacteria and some do not.
(2) Its severity ranges widely from mild to severe.
(3) No definition or diagnostic criteria have been established so far in Japan
(4) There are few effective treatments.

Based on such a background, a movement arose to try to establish the definition and diagnostic criteria of MGD in Japan, and the MGD Working Group (representative: Shiro Amano) was created under the Dry Eye Society (representative manager: Kazuo Tsubota) in 2008. A few general meetings of the MGD Working Group have been held so far to establish the definition and classification of, and diagnostic criteria for MGD and to prepare reviews of test and treatment methods as follows. It was decided to publish them on the website of the Dry Eye Society.

Definition and Diagnosis

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